NAC 2023 will be held on 23 March & 24 March at Van der Valk Hotel Utrecht, Utrecht.
NAC 2023 welcomes you back on Thursday 23 and Friday 24 March 2023. Reconnect face to face with colleagues in Van der Valk Hotel, Utrecht.
The 19th edition of NAC (Nederlands Aardwetenschappelijk Congres) brings together the research fields within the Earth and Environmental Sciences from the remit of the NWO Science Domain. The event aims to continue to provide a true interdisciplinary forum for discussion and for young scientists to present their research results to a broad audience. NAC is a great opportunity to present your science and get some really crucial feedback, to meet and mix with eminent people within the field and to really take the opportunity to speak to as many people as you can. Online registration for this leading meeting is closed.
The Programme Committee chaired by Prof. Martina Vijver of Leiden University is responsible for reviewing the scientific conference submissions and drafting the conference programme. With over 400 attendees, 4 renowned keynotes, over 120 parallel presentations, and over 120 posters, NAC is the top Dutch meeting on Earth and Environmental Sciences. Furthermore, eight workshops shall be held; interactive sessions that encourage networking, skills development, and creative thinking. These workshops are ‘Plastic across the sea-ocean interface’, ‘(how) Can satellites benefit Earth and Environmental Sciences?’, ‘Dutch Climate Research Initiative’ (Klimaatonderzoek Initiatief Nederland – KIN), ‘Scientific Storytelling’, 'Gender disbalance in Earth Sciences?', 'From Geo to Astro: Opportunities for geoscientists in the field of planets, moons and life beyond Earth', ‘Important Changes in the NWO Talent Programme’, and ‘Using immersive experiences for future resilience’.
Save the Date: The 2024 'NAC' Congress on Earth & Environmental Sciences shall be held on Thursday 7 and Friday 8 March 2024 again in the Van der Valk Hotel, Utrecht.
The NAC was founded in 1992 by KNAW, KNGMG, and NWO. Since then, 18 editions of NAC were held with scientists from all research fields within the Earth Sciences. NAC 2023 will be organised and sponsored by the Domain Science of the Dutch Research Council NWO.
NAC 2023 is complying with the current measures announced by the Dutch government to prevent any further spread of COVID-19.
The Programme Committee of NAC 2023 is tasked with compiling a broadly appealing programme. This Programme Committee comprises scientists from both Earth and Environmental Sciences, and is chaired by Prof. Martina Vijver of Leiden University. Contributions will be scheduled as oral presentations that take place in parallel sessions spread over the two days of the congress. In addition there will be dedicated poster sessions each day, with ample time during the programme for visiting the posters.
Based on the keywords selected during submission of abstracts (see list below), the total number of abstracts and the topics submitted, the Programme Committee will arrange the abstracts into broader overarching parallel sessions. The themes of these parallel sessions will e.g. focus on specific or timely issues in the fields of Earth and Environmental Sciences, or they can aggregate contributions with a methodological or topical similarity. The committee will then decide if an abstract is accepted as an oral or poster presentation within one of those sessions. As the conference will be an interdisciplinary meeting ground for geoscientists, this procedure aims at encouraging researchers from all fields in Earth and Environmental Sciences to connect, interact and present their progress of research.
You will have to register first. Please select the option ‘yes’ under ‘submit abstract’. You will receive a unique link by email after you have completed the registration process. This link can be used to login and submit your abstract. Abstracts (max. 250 words) can be submitted not later than Monday 16 January 2023, 17:00 h CET. Please note that the official language of the conference and for submitting abstracts and giving oral and poster presentations will be English.
The Programme Committee will define the themes of the parallel sessions and compile the conference programme based on the abstracts received before Monday 16 January 2023, 17:00 h CET. From all received abstracts, a selection of authors will be invited to give an oral presentation. By default, authors of the other abstracts will be offered the option of a poster presentation. In June 2022 the final program will be announced on the website and applicants will receive an invitation with instructions for preparing their oral or poster presentations.
Oral presentations are scheduled in parallel sessions spread over the two days of the congress. Authors are allotted 15 minutes for presenting, including time for questions and discussion. Authors will be asked to upload their presentation prior to the start of their parallel session. We have listed some tips to help you prepare your talk.
At the NAC you will have an excellent opportunity to practise your academic skills, such as giving poster presentations and poster pitches. Starting 2020, posters will be displayed only on one of the conference days, linked to the topics of parallel sessions. You will be informed beforehand which day you are expected to present your posters. When it comes to designing a scientific poster we have compiled a few ‘best practices’ that you can read on this page. A poster prize will be awarded to the three best posters made by early-career scientists, so if you take note of these tips you might increase your chances of winning! Please note that posters can only be presented in A0 portrait (vertical) orientation of 841 x 1189 mm (width x height).
We welcome contributions from all branches of the Earth and Environmental Sciences. Abstracts can be submitted using one or two the following keywords:
Atmospheric sciences include all topics related to meteorology, climate, atmospheric composition and air quality. It extends from the large-scale processes and systems in the atmosphere to the smaller scales, both in time frames that span from centuries (e.g. related to climate research) to shorter scales of seconds (e.g. turbulence). Covered under this keyword are contributions that e.g. focus on studies of atmosphere composition, atmospheric dynamics, aerosol and cloud physics, in-situ or laboratory studies of e.g. fluxes or gas-particles interactions. We welcome contributions from the national observational infrastructure Ruisdael.
Biogeosciences covers biosphere-geosphere interactions in the present, past and in the future, biogeochemical cycles and research at the interface of (micro)biology and earth sciences. It integrates biology, chemistry, and physics and its focus goes beyond the established scientific approaches embracing multi- and interdisciplinary understandings of bio-geosphere functioning in space and time. Experimental, conceptual, and modelling approaches are welcomed and the development and calibration of proxies and their use to reconstruct palaeoenvironments. Contributions on research performed within the NESSC Program and SOLAS (Surface Ocean and Lower Atmosphere Studies) are welcome here.
Biosphere can be summarized as the sphere of life. This keyword covers contributions related to modelling, monitoring, and mapping terrestrial ecosystems, including forests, grassland, savannas, agriculture, and freshwater ecosystems, including wetlands, coastal zones, and saltmarshes. Research topics can focus solely on the biosphere itself or the interactions with the other parts of the Earth System (e.g., atmosphere, hydrosphere, etc.).
In-depth knowledge of the Carbon Cycle is needed to reduce the GHG concentrations (a.o. CO2 and CH4) in the atmosphere. This involves both drastically reducing current emissions and efficiently sequestering GHGs in sub-surface reservoirs. The carbon cycle includes the whole Earth system: the atmosphere, soil and subsoil, oceans, coastal zones, biosphere and ecosystems and the interactions between these subsystems. This theme aims to increase our understanding of the mechanisms, scale and relevance of all links in the carbon chain including human pressures, the interactions and uncertainty margins, and the options for carbon capture and carbon storage. Contributions on research performed within the NESSC Program are welcome here.
The dynamics of currents, wave and tides in interaction with coastal sediment, bathymetry, morphology and biology create intricating ever changing landscapes. Humans in the modern situation tend to make heavy use off these coastal systems, especially in places such as The Netherlands. This key word covers studies of the morphodynamic of shelf seas, beach coasts, tidal inlets and deltaic river channels – combining field data and numeric modelling with the occasional flume experiment and so on. It also covers studies of human design, engineering, forms of nourishment. It also covers bio-sedimentary and ecological aspects of the dynamics of these coastal systems in natural and in human-interfered situations.
Recent advances in (Dutch) planetary geoscience are covered by this keyword, including geological, morphological, geophysical, astronomical and geochemical studies of planet- and moon interiors, surfaces, and atmospheres in relation with our own Earth. Moreover, we promote interdisciplinary contributions of the solar system and exoplanetary systems to learn more about their origins and evolution. This keyword covers a broad range of methodologies for studying planetary bodies, such as ground-based observations or space mission exploration (i.e. remote sensing), numerical and analogue modelling, extra-terrestrial sample analysis and terrestrial analogue (field) studies. Contributions from multi-disciplinary projects like PEPSci-2 are invited to submit an abstract with this keyword.
The cryosphere are those parts of the Earth that are subject to prolonged periods of temperatures below the freezing point of water. These include glaciers, frozen ground, and ice sheets. Research topics can focus solely on the cryosphere (e.g. land/sea ice mass balance), or on interactions with other components of the climate system, both addressing theory, observation and modelling. Contributions on research performed within the NESSC Program are also welcome.
Geoscience and environmental sciences often generate large and complex data sets covering high spatial and/or temporal resolutions from e.g., remote sensing or model output. The analysis of this data requires application and development of advanced data science techniques, including data assimilation, data mining, machine learning etc. This keyword covers research with these data science techniques across the different fields of earth- and environmental sciences. We also welcome contributions on data-driven digital twins in the earth and environmental sciences (e.g., in preparation for the EU Destination Earth Programme).
Understanding of the past evolution and current thermal, dynamical and chemical state of the Earth's deep interior and of the effect that the interior has on the structures and processes observed at the surface of the Earth. The 'deep interior' is generally considered to be the core and lower mantle, but interest may extend to the surface, for example, in the study of mantle plumes or dynamics of descending lithospheric slabs. This keyword serves to tag conference contributions more explicitly in which the deep interior of planet Earth is addressed.
Data from Earth observation satellites, small-sat constellations, airborne and drones is increasingly being used to study the Earth’s interior, surface, and atmosphere. Topics can cover any of these subjects, and interactions between them, and the use of space-based and aerial observations and share the best practices and available tools and methods for Earth science applications, including upcoming BigData/BigScience issues.
Humans influence most biological and physical systems of the planet nowadays and the entire earth system now operates outside the “normal” state exhibited over at least the past 10.000 years. In the future the human footprint may even be larger. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop better governance mechanisms and institutions at all levels to cope with this emerging earth system transformation. The institutions, organizations, and governance mechanisms by which humans currently regulate their relationship with the natural environment and global biochemical systems are poorly understood. More fundamental and applied research on the global, national and local institutions and governance systems is therefore needed.
Next to the general trends that are currently affecting the teaching and learning environment for Earth Scientists, for example, in the way humanity is exploring and exploiting our planet, or changes in the labour market asking for a new type of professional, the COVID-19 pandemic has a major impact on the way students and PhDs are educated. This impact is especially vast for students who depend in their studies on fieldwork and laboratory work, such as the case in Earth Sciences.
The safe, efficient and cost-effective use of the subsurface in environmentally sustainable ways for the exploration and exploitation of natural resources and the construction of transport and storage infrastructures requires a thorough knowledge of the geological and geophysical heterogeneity. Covered by this keyword are contributions on case studies and innovative approaches to construct static earth models based on, e.g., process-based numerical forward modelling, seismic, well logs and core studies, and hybrid outcrop – stochastic – laboratory studies as well as dynamic models simulating processes in and around natural resource exploitation as well as underground infrastructure facilities. In addition, studies specifically focussed on sedimentary basins as hosts of important natural resources like coal, gas, oil, ore deposits, groundwater and geothermics are welcomed. This keyword also matches well to studies embedded in the recent KEM and DeepNL research programs.
These keywords cover studies that are fundamental to the study of the solid Earth. Topics can include studies related to the Earth’s mantle; oceanic and continental crust; the formation and crystallisation of magmas; the chemical compositions of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks; studies of volcanoes and various types of volcanism. While mostly fundamental in nature, applied topics include pollution of the atmosphere, surface or subsurface waters, the formation of ore deposits, and environmental impacts of volcanism (both subaerial, submarine as subglacial).
This keyword covers all aspects and methods that focus on determining the timing of events and processes as well as their rates in the geological record. Methodological development studies of dating techniques, as well as studies applying and integrating techniques to reduce chronometric uncertainties, or studies on standardization or studies comparing different dating methods are covered by this keyword.
The fields of Geodynamics, Geophysics and Geodesy together cover many aspects of studying the Earth’s surface, lithosphere, mantle, and core. This encompasses observations, imaging, theory, numerical modelling (simulations) and laboratory modelling (experiments), over shorter and longer timescales, involving rheological, seismic, paleomagnetic and gravitational aspects. At the surface, this includes sea-level rise, the tides, changing ice masses and global water circulation. Observing and measuring at the Earth’s surface and lithosphere, provides insight into spatial and temporal patterns of geophysical processes and deformations also in the deeper parts of the earth. Topics therefore span from measurement systems to the actual investigation of geophysical processes.
Geomorphology is the study of land-surface features and the dynamic processes that shape them. At the heart of geomorphology is the understanding landform history and dynamics, and predicting future changes through a combination of field observations, physical experiments, and numerical modelling. Research focussed on processes that ‘build topography’ as a result of the interplay between the effects of tectonic forces and processes that modify the terrain, such as weathering, erosion through running water, waves, glacial ice, wind and gravitational forces. This also includes human influences on geomorphological processes and the societal application of geomorphological research.
Developments in non-remote instrumentation, technology, methods and data handling used in any field of the geosciences, aiming to advance instrumentation and data systems and to share experiences and approaches with other subject areas.
Monitoring, modelling and prediction are basic issues in hydrology and geohydrology. Research is focussed on quantitative and qualitative aspects of fresh and saline groundwater and surface water systems, their dynamics and their interrelationships with the surrounding geology and ecosystems. This includes interactions between hydrology and geomorphology (e.g., erosion, sedimentation, groundwater systems), the relationships between hydrology and soils or sedimentary reservoirs, as well as the interaction between the hydrosphere and the biosphere (e.g., ecohydrology, wetlands). This may also include research into the management and operation of water resources by societies in various parts of the world, reservoir engineering, civil engineering, soil sciences en environmental sciences. Contributions from researchers pertaining to the Boussinesq Center for Hydrology, the Dutch and Belgian scientific hydrology centre, as well as researchers from the field of (geo)hyrology are welcome and encouraged to submit abstracts.
Research pertaining to the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP), an international marine research collaboration dedicated to advancing scientific understanding of the Earth through drilling, coring, and monitoring the subseafloor, and the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), a multinational program to further and fund geosciences in the field of Continental Scientific Drilling.
How can we improve our understanding of geological, geophysical and environmental, including human-induced, processes that can be hazardous and damage landscapes and society? Are there new technologies, methods and strategies that help better predict and/or mitigate detrimental effects of natural hazards? These hazards include, but are not limited to, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, storms and hurricanes, heatwaves and droughts, floods, landslides, soil erosion, pollution, avalanches and wildfires. What is the impact of these hazards on current and future landscapes and societies? How can we reduce the negative impacts of these hazards and make our planet, ecosystems and society more resilient and sustainable?
Nonlinearity is broadly found in all branches of the geosciences: earth science and environmental sciences. Covered by this keyword are studies of, new methodologies, new modelling or new data analysis techniques related to nonlinear paradigms whose applications broadly applicable to various subdisciplines. This can include deterministic chaos, tipping points, nonlinear waves, similarity across scales, network theory, stochasticity, predictability and its limits, pattern formation, self-organised criticality, extreme events.
Ocean Sciences covers the various ocean science disciplines including physical oceanography, ecology and chemistry on global, regional and local (e.g. Waddenzee) scales. Research topics can focus solely on the oceans (e.g. large-scale circulation, coastal oceanography, sea level change), or its interactions with the seabed, atmosphere or biology, addressing theory, observations and modelling. Contributions on research performed within the NESSC Program are also welcome here.
In this theme we invite contributions in the area of paleoclimatology based on reconstructions using marine, terrestrial and ice archives as well as model studies offering understanding of individual processes, thresholds and tipping points in the past. In particular studies focusing on the feedbacks, between the various components of the Earth system are encouraged. Furthermore, we invite contributions on model-data comparison in paleoclimatology. Contributions on research performed within the NESSC Program and as part of INQUA/PAGES initiatives are also welcome. You may also consider the Present & Future Climate Change keyword.
Excavation of ancient life and traces of human ancestry is intimately linked to earth sciences: the local circumstances trapping and preserving articulated fossil records and archaeological sites (taphonomy), the regional to global circumstances explaining evolutionary and cultural developments, the strategies of discovering and documenting find sites. The keyword is to cover bone-bed, cave-fill and lake-rim material studies (e.g. dinosaur excavation, hominin sites), as well as landscape-archaeological and multiproxy geoarchaeological work involving the modern human species in subrecent times in younger Pleistocene and Holocene palaeoenvironments.
In 2009, a group of Earth System and environmental scientists identified nine "planetary life support systems" essential for human survival, attempting to quantify how far these systems had been pushed already. They estimated how much further humans can go before planetary habitability is threatened. Transgressing one or more planetary boundaries may be harmful or even catastrophic due to the risk of crossing thresholds that will trigger non-linear, abrupt environmental change within continental-scale to planetary-scale systems. The Earth system process boundaries mark the safe zone for the planet to the extent that they are not crossed. Further research is needed to improve our knowledge of the system dynamics, their interactions, tipping points and the way we can avoid crossing the critical tresholds.
Studies on subrecent, present and future climate change, based on natural archives, instrumental records as well as model studies are welcomed. This theme aims to deepen our knowledge of the interaction between human activities, greenhouse gas emissions and concentrations in the atmosphere and the expected changes of our climate system. Studies highlighting individual processes, thresholds and tipping points and those that focus on feedbacks between the various components of the Earth system are encouraged. Studies on linking through to environmental impact of climate change are also welcomed (including investigating possible solutions for climate mitigation and adaptation, and nature based solutions and geo-engineering). Contributions on research performed within the NESSC Program are also welcome. You may also consider the Paleoclimate & Past Climate Change keyword.
We invite contributions on sedimentary processes and products in terrestrial, coastal, and marine clastic and carbonate settings. Ongoing processes, young sedimentary records, ancient outcrop studies, numerical and analogue modeling efforts are all welcome. Contributions that integrate the sedimentary and geomorphological records with (paleo-)biological and (paleo-)climatic data sets are welcomed too. Returning issues have been physical genesis of landforms and sedimentary rocks, their age, their heterogeneity in composition and structure, the controls on their formation and their preservation, postdepositional processes such as compaction, and the relevance of this all in applied contexts.
These topics centre on the development of static and dynamic geophysical models, conducting research that spans from acquisition parameters to petrophysical properties, theoretical and experimental aspects of rock physics, and supporting the transitions from geo-modelling to geo-technical application. We also invite studies that focus on the characterisation of earthquakes, seismoacoustic or infrasonic sources, as well as methods to simulate wave propagation. This keyword also matches well to studies embedded in the recent KEM and DeepNL research programs.
The Earth and Environmental sciences play a crucial role in many of the grand challenges our society faces. As a society, we need the resources of the earth (water, space, minerals, energy resources), but making use of the resources also affects the environment we live in. These effects add to the effects of natural processes of the system Earth such as earthquakes, floods and hurricanes. This keyword covers Earth and Environmental scientific research and engineering with an explicit aim to apply science for the benefit of society. Societal impact occurs on different spatial and temporal scales: from for instance how processes in the Earth impact an individual farmer to their impact at the global scale.
Soils form the interface between the Earth’s crust and atmosphere and are a basis for life on Earth. Soils foster biodiversity and record the interactions between lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. This keyword broadly covers the soil sciences as linked to a wide range of societal issues such as food security, water availability and climate change. It encompasses both fundamental and applied research.
A vast majority of the Earth’s surface is covered by sedimentary deposits, which are eroded and deposited and form a direct link between the lithosphere, atmosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere. The sedimentary archive of Earth history is studied with a wide range of analytical techniques providing details on the evolution of our planet. Focused on all aspects of the sedimentary record, this keyword covers studies that will provide a better understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes controlling the formation and distribution of sediments and sedimentary rocks.
Land subsidence may have potentially catastrophic consequences, particularly in densely populated low-land areas, like the Netherlands. It results from the interplay of different processes ranging from drainage of shallow clay and peat deposits, extraction of groundwater or hydrocarbons from deeper-seated reservoirs, to large-scale tectonic movements. We particularly welcome contributions on the physical and chemical processes causing subsidence, and on methodologies to predict and monitor subsidence in time scales relevant to mankind. Organisers: Dutch Consortium on Land Subsidence: Utrecht University, Delft University of Technology, Wageningen Environmental Research, Deltares Research Institute, and TNO - Geological Survey of The Netherlands.
What are the expected possible contributions of solar power, wind power, geothermal energy, water energy (hydroelectric energy, wave power, tidal energy) and sustainable biomass to our future sustainable fossil-free energy production and what are the impacts of large scale sustainable energy production on our ecosystems and landscapes?
Contributions for this keyword investigate rock deformation at all scales with the aim to understand its complex relationships using natural observations, including mapping, remote sensing and seismic measurements, and experimental approaches.
The water cycle connects all parts of the earth and environmental systems. The intensification of the global water cycle – triggered by climate change – will result in more weather extremes, floods & droughts, with impact on water availability (for drinking water supply & agriculture), water quality, soil subsidence and water safety (especially in urbanised areas and delta regions). Important research topics are: (i) the future impact of climate change on the water cycle on different temporal and spatial scales; (ii) the interaction between land use and the water cycle; (iii) the expected impact of ecosystem services on the water cycle; (iv) water safety options; and (v) water circularity and the reduction of our water footprint. This keyword focuses on the entire watercycle, where as water related studies that fit solely within (for example) hydrology or ocean sciences should use those keywords.
The Athena Award rewards female researchers that stand out, and because of that are role models for others. Role models are important for female researchers who are starting their careers. These role models demonstrate that a career in science is possible. Each year the laureates will receive the award of 50k€, to be spent on diversity and inclusion, especially for making role models more visible in the scientific community.
The NWO Communication Initiative Award rewards initiatives of successful and inspiring science communication by scientists. Per year at most three initiatives of individuals or team receive the award of 10k€. The prizemoney is intended for activities with relation to the initiative.
The Escher Prize, established in 1994, is named after the Leiden Professor of General Geology Prof. Dr. B.G. Escher (1885-1967). The prize can be awarded annually to the author(s) of the best MSc thesis in (applied) earth sciences in the broadest sense of the word, assessed by the Jury as the best graduation thesis.
Since 2016, the KNGMG annually awards the Jelgersma Prize for the best Dutch Earth Science bachelor's thesis. The prize is named after Dr Saskia (Kiek) Jelgersma (1929-2012). We hope that her independent way of thinking and acting and her excellent work will serve as an example to bachelor students. The prize can be awarded annually to the author(s) of the best BSc thesis in (applied) earth sciences in the broadest sense of the word, assessed by the Jury as the best graduation thesis.
Netherlands Journal of Geosciences – Geologie en Mijnbouw - is a scientific international quarterly journal, which publishes papers on all aspects of geoscience, provided they are of international interest and quality. The Netherlands Journal of Geosciences will announce the NJG publication Prize to the best paper of the year.
We are honoured to announce that the following renowned speakers have confirmed their contribution to NAC 2023.
Associate professor in Environmental Sciences. Investigates how food, energy & economic systems affect environmental crises. Author of 'Best of Times, Worst of Times: Futures from the Frontiers of Climate Science'.
University of Leeds
Professor in Geodesy and Geophysics at the University of Leeds. Studies active volcanic and tectonic geophysical processes, with a special interest in imaging surface deformation using spaceborne radar.
INRAE & AgroParisTech
Professor of Soil Sciences at AgroParisTech (Paris, France) with a strong academic track record, accomplished experience of the science-policypractice interface and committed involvement in awareness raising activities. Winner of the 2019 Philippe Duchaufour Medal of the EGU.
Professor in Mountain Hydrology at Utrecht University. He studies the high-altitude water cycle in mountains and has a special interest in field-based studies in extreme environments and mountain water resources and hazards under climate change.
What to expect of NAC 2023? No less than five inspiring plenary lectures, more than 100 interesting parallel presentations, posters, workshops and a whole lot more! Please check out the full programme below.
Costs for attending NAC 2023 are listed below.
The registration period is from 23 March 2023 until 24 March 2023.
At NAC there will be a photo competition. Every participant in NAC 2023 can submit one photo on any theme related to the broad field of earth sciences. To submit a photo for the competition, one must be registered for NAC 2023 (see terms and conditions). Submitted photos will be exhibited at the conference.
Tourists exploring the Sólheimajökull Glacier in Iceland.
Credit: Paolo Tasseron | When: April 2022 | Where: Skógar, Sólheimajökull, Iceland
No greater joy than sharing our enthusiasm with students on their way to becoming an Earth Sciences professional .
Credit: Hans de Bresser | When: June 6th 2022 | Where: Huercal Overe basin, SE Spain
Paleomagnetic sampling of the 1953 basaltic lava delta of the Bárcena volcano, San Benedicto Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, eastern Pacific.
Credit: Douwe van Hinsbergen | When: March 2022 | Where: San Benedicto Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, eastern Pacific
Sula's are also know as rapids. These occur in the Surinamese Rivers and are the result of the river incising in the underlain weathered basement.
Credit: Kathleen Gersie | When: March 27th 2021 | Where: Sipaliwini-Suriname
Ammonite fossils, trapped in time for about 66 million years.
The marine molluscs went extinct at the end of the Cretaceous period. That is around the same time as dinosaurs.
Credit: Swagatam Chakraborty | When: August 2017 | Where: Digne-les-Bains, France
Okshornan (Bull's or Devil's Teeth) consisting of palaeoproterozoic gneisses, fabulously mirrored in a marine isolation basin formed by recent glacio-isostatic uplift.
Credit: Wim Hoek | When: July 25, 2022 | Where: Tungeneset, Senja, Norway